This volume celebrates the study of Austria in the twentieth century by historians, political scientists and social scientists produced in the previous twenty-four volumes of Contemporary Austrian Studies. One contributor from each of the previous volumes has been asked to update the state of scholarship in the field addressed in the respective volume.
With its ambiguous mix of weak federalist and strong centralist elements, the Austrian constitutional architecture has been subject to conﬂicting interpretations and claims from its very beginning. The written 1920 constitution has been paralleled by informal rules and forces making up for the imbalance of power between national and subnational authorities. Understanding these inherent weaknesses, virtually all political actors involved are well aware that reforming the allocation of rights and duties between the different levels in the federal state is urgently needed.
In recent years, several initiatives of recalibrating the system of power-sharing between the different levels of government have been initiated. So far progress has been modest, yet the reform process is still underway.
The contributions to this volume shine a light on history, presence, and future aspects of the Austrian federal system from historical, juridical, economic, and political science perspective. The volume is also the ﬁrst book in English ever devoted to the Austrian version of federalism.
Günter Bischof, Ferdinand Karlhofer (eds.)
Samuel r. Williamson, Jr. (Guest editor)
For the past 100 years some of the greatest historians and political scientists of the twentieth century have picked apart, analyzed and reinterpreted this sequence of events taking place within a single month in July/early August 1914.
The four years of fighting during World War I destroyed the international system put into place at the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15 and led to the dissolution of some of the great old empires of Europe (Austrian-Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian). The 100th anniversary of the assassination of the Austrian successor to the throne Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophie in Sarajevo unleashed the series of events that unleashed World War I.
The assassination in Sarajevo, the spark that set asunder the European powder keg, has been the focus of a veritable blizzard of commemorations, scholarly conferences and a new avalanche of publications dealing with this signal historical event that changed the world. Contemporary Austrian Studies would not miss the opportunity to make its contribution to these scholarly discourses by focusing on reassessing the Dual Monarchy's crucial role in the outbreak and the first year of the war, the military experience in the trenches, and the chaos on the homefront.
Günter Bischof/Ferdinand Karlhofer, eds.
Austria's International Position after the End of the Cold War
Contemporary Austrian Studies 22.
New Orleans-Innsbruck: UNO Press-innsbruck university press 2013
The Iron Curtain came down in 1989 and Austria found its international position dramatically changed after the end of the Cold War. Austria joined the European Union in 1995 and aligned its foreign policy with the EU. Unlike its neighbors to the East, it did not join NATO but continued its policy of neutrality. Austria strengthened its trade and investments in Central and Eastern Europe. Austria experienced devastating wars in its neighborhood in the Balkans and Austrian diplomats served as mediators in the region.
Günter Bischof, Ferdinand Karlhofer, eds.
Austria's International Position after the End of the Cold War
Contemporary Austrian Studies, vol. 22 (2013)
Günter Bischof (University of New Orleans)
From Cold War Mediator to Bad Boy of Europe: Austria and the U.S. in the Transatlantic Arena (1990-2013)
Austrian Foreign and Security Policy
Ursula Plassnik (Austrian Ambassador, Paris)
Austria's Foreign Policy Agenda: From the Cold War to the European Union
Emil Brix (Austrian Ambassador, London)
Cultural and Public Diplomacy after the Cold War
Erwin A. Schmidl (Austrian Defense Academy)
Austrian Security Policy after the End of the Cold War
James Sheehan (Stanford University)
What Does It Mean To Be Neutral? Postwar Austria from a Comparative Perspective
Eastern Europe and the Balkans
Arnold Suppan (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
Austria and Eastern Europe in the Post-Cold War Context
Hanspeter Neuhold (University of Vienna)
The Return of History in the Balkans after the Cold War: International Efforts at Conflict Resolution
Andreas Resch (Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration)
Austrian Foreign Trade and Austrian Companies" Economic Engagement in Eastern Europe
Foreign Policy and Memory
Norman Naimark (Stanford University)
Historical Memory and the Debate about the Vertreibung Museum
Ferdinand Karlhofer (University of Innsbruck)
The Rise and Decline and Rise of Austria's Radical Right
Dieter Stiefel, Camillo Castiglioni oder die Metaphysik der Haimfische (Böhlau 2012) by Harold James (Princeton University)
Brigitte Kepplinger and Irene Leitner, eds., worked on by Andrea Kammerhofer,Dameron Report: Bericht des War Crimes Investigating Teams No. 6824 der U. S. Army vom 17. 7. 1945 über die Tötungsanstalt Hartheim by Gerhard Weinberg (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
Thomas König, Die Frűhgeschichte ds Fulbright Program in Österreich: Transatlantische „Fűhlungsnahme auf dem Gebiete der Erziehung"(StudienVerlag 2012) by Berndt Ostendorf (University of Munich)
The Expulsion of the Sudenten Germans from Postwar Czechoslovakia : Adrian von Arburg, Tomáš Staněk, eds., Vysídlení Němců a proměny českého pohraničí 1945 - 1951 : dokumenty z českých archive; 1. Češi a Němci do roku 1945 : úvod k edici; 2.1. Duben - srpen/září 1945: "Divoký odsun" a počátky osídlování (Středokluky 2010-201) by David Schriffl (Austrian Academy of Sciences)
Heinz Kienzl/Herbert Starke, eds., Anton Benya und der Austrosozialismus(OeGB Verlag 2012) by Anton Pelinka (Central European University, Budapest)
Margit Reiter and Helga Embacher, eds., Europa und der 11. September 2011(Vienna: Böhlau Verlag 2011) by Gűnter Bischof, University of New Orleans
Annual Review of Austrian Politics
Writing biographies for a long time had been a male hegemonic project. Ever since Plutarch and Sueton composed their vitae of the greats of classical antiquity, to the medieval obsession with the hagiographies of holy men (and a few women) and saints, Vasari’s lives of great Renaissance artists, down to the French encyclopedists, Dr. Johnson and Lytton Strachey, as well as Ranke and Droysen the genre of biographical writing has become increasingly more refined.
After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, Austria transformed itself from an empire to a small Central European country. Formerly an important player in international affairs, the new republic was quickly sidelined by the European concert of powers. The enormous losses of territory and population in Austria’s post-Habsburg state of existence, however, did not result in a political, economic, cultural, and intellectual black hole.
The breakup of the Habsburg Dual Monarchy and the redrawing of the political map of East Central Europe constituted a major experiment in “destroying the old, and creating the new” (O. Hwaletz). Historians are more inclined to study the rise of empires than their demise and aftermath.
The eighteen essays in this volume offer fresh perspective and innovative scholarship on the difficult transition from empire to republic for the small state of Austria, newly created by the Allied peacemakers in Paris in 1919. These essays also deal with complex challenges of nation building after a major war as well as the ambiguity inherent in the creation of new institutions in politics, economics, social life and culture.
In 1919 the government of the instable and fledgling Republic of Austria faced the task of integrating more than a million of returning war veterans and taking care of 110,000 wounded veterans returning from the frontlines. The government was also confronting revolutionary turmoil in the streets of Vienna, a neartotal collapse of the agricultural and industrial economies and near-mental breakdown from the trauma of defeat. Hyperinflation produced a financial crisis in the early 1920s and major economic challenges in the banking and industrial sectors.
The redrawn borders produced loss of German ethnics and major demographic shifts. Pan-Germanism was an ideology popular in all political camps. “Austrians”—no longer dominant in a vast empire—were searching for a new identity. After four years of war, Austrians had to confront defeat and constructed a national memory from painful personal remembrances. Most families were dealing with family members returning from a long and destructive war with limbs missing and souls deranged. In spite of ideological conflict between the major political camps, a national cultural revival ensued and new educational institutions were born.
Cover photo: A severely wounded soldier from the battle on the Isonzo front awaits transport to the hospital on 23 August 1917. (Photo courtesy of Picture Archives of the Austrian National Library)
Featuring essays by Peter Gerlich, Fritz Plasser/Peter Ulram, Heinrich Neisser, Reinhard Heinisch, Heinrich Niesser, Johannes Ditz, Josef Leidenfrost, Anton Pelinka et al., as well as a FORUM on the “disturbing creativity” of Austrian artists, book reviews and the review of Austrian politics.
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Beginnning with volume 18, Contemporary Austrian Studies is published as a joint venture by University of New Orleans Publishing and Innsbruck University PressAll UNO Press books are available from online booksellers as well as your local bookstore. Distributed to the trade in the USA by National Book Network.
Günter Bischof and Fritz Plasser, Editors
Contemporary Austrian Studies, Vol. 18
382 pages • $40.00
For more than a generation after World War II, official government doctrine and many Austrians insisted they had been victims of Nazi aggression in 1938 and, therefore, bore no responsibility for German war crimes. During the past twenty years this myth has been revised to include a more complex past, one with both Austrian perpetrators and victims.
The Changing Austrian Voters: A Historical Typology
Wolfgang C. Müller:
Elections and Party System Dynamics
Fritz Plasser + Peter A.Ulram:
Electoral Change in Austria
Guenther Hofinger + Guenther Ogris:
Electoral Mobility in Austria
Regional Elections in Austria
Kurt R. Luther:
Haider- and Post-Haider Populism in Austria
The Media and Austrian Elections
Fritz Plasser + Gilg Seeber:
Austrian Electoral Behavior in International Comparison
Forum: The Elections of October 1, 2006 . Austrian Experts Interpret the National Elections of October 1, 2006
Rudolf Bretschneider (GFK Austria- Survey Resarch)
Peter Gerlich (University of Vienna)
Peter Hajek (OGM – Survey Research)
Imma Palme(IFES – Survey Research)
Anton Pelinka (Central European University)
Manfred Prisching (University of Graz)
A New Perspective from Moscow Archives: Austria and the Stalin Notes of 1952
The Birth of the N+NA: Austrian and Swiss Foreign Policy in the CSCE
New Literature on Austria Coming to Terms with and Memory of Its World War II Past (Reiter on post-Nazi Generations, Albrich/Garscha on Justiz und NS, Perz on Mauthausen, Redl on Carinthian war monuments)
Hungarian 1956 Refugees in Vienna (Museum Wien Exhibit)
John Boyer, Brix/Bruckmüller/Steckl, eds., Memoria Austriae, 3 vols
Thomas Nowotny on Gehler, Austrian Foreign Policy (2 vols.)
Marsha Rozenblitt on Klaus Hödl and Viennese Jews of the 19th Century
Günter Bischof on Fellner/Corradini, eds., Österreichische Geschichtswissenschaft
Scholars have increasingly been investigating human sexuality as an important field of social history in particular national cultures. This volume examines both continuities and changing patterns of sexual behavior in Austria.
This volume covers foreign policy in the 20th century and offers an up-to-date status report of the study of Austria’s foreign policy trajectories and diplomatic options both in the historical and political sciences. Eva Nowotny, the current Austrian Ambassador to the U.S., introduces the volume with an analysis of the art and practice of Austrian diplomacy in historical perspective. Ambassador Wolfgang Petritsch analyses recent Balkans diplomacy from his personal perspective as an EU-emissary in the Bosnian and Kosovo crises.
Like most European countries, Austria does not have a strict separation between state and church. Since the counter-reformation, it has been considered a country strongly influenced by Catholicism. Austrian attitudes towards religion derive from the Habsburg experience, when emperors and the Catholic Church acted in complete unison. This new volume in the Contemporary Austrian Studies series reevaluates this age-old tradition.
Political, economic, social, and cultural modernization dramatically transformed twentieth-century Austria. Innovative new methods of production and management, such as the assembly line, changed Austrian business after World War I. At the same time, jazz, Hollywood movies, television programming, and mass commodities were as popular in Austria as elsewhere in Western Europe.
Even political campaigns followed American trends. All this occurred despite the fact that in West Germany, American nostrums and models had been rejected, modified, or “translated” into milder versions. Ultimately, Austria was “Western Europeanized” when it joined the European Union in 1995.
How Western are the Austrian? This volume analyzes trends toward Americanization and Westernization in Austria throughout the twentieth century.
Austria joined the European Union in 1995, with the overwhelming support of its citizenry. In June 1994, a record of 66.6 percent of the Austrian population voted in favor of joining the Union, and Austria acceded on January 1, 1995. Only three years later, in the second half of 1998, Austria assumed its first presidency of the European Union. Its competent conduct of the Union's business enhanced reputation. The sense that Austria was a role model collapsed overnight: after a new conservative People's Party (ÖVP/FPÖ) coalition government was formed in Austria in early February 2000, Austria became Europe's nightmare.
Michael Gehler, co-editor
After Stalin's death, during a respite in Cold War tensions in 1955, Austria managed to rid itself of a quadripartite occupation regime and become a neutral state. As the Cold War continued, Austria's policy of neutrality helped make this small country into an important mediator of East-West differences, and neutrality became a crucial part of Austria's postwar identity.
In the post-Cold War era Austrian neutrality seems to demand redefinition. The work addresses such issues as what neutrality means when Austria's neighbors are joining NATO. What is the difference between Austrian neutrality in 1955 and 2000? In remaining apart from NATO, do Austrian elites risk their nation's national security? Is Austria a “free rider,” too stingy to contribute to Western defense? Has the neutralist mentality become such a crucial part of AUstrian postwar identity that its abandonment will threaten civil society?
Erika Thurner, co-editor
Perhaps no country benefited more from the Marshall Plan for assistance in reconstruction of Europe after World War II than Austria. On per capita basis, each American tax-payer invested $80 per person in the Plan; each Austrian received $133 from the European recovery program, more than any other of the sixteen participating countries. Without the Marshall Plan, the Austrian economic miracle of the 1950's would have been unthinkable. Despite this, contemporary Austria seems to have forgotten this essential American contribution to its post-war reconstruction. This volume in the CAS Series examines how the Plan affected Austria, and how it is perceived today.
Günter Bischof, Anton Pelinka, Dieter Stiefel, editors
Franz Vranitzky was chancellor during ten years (1986-96) when the world dramatically changed in the aftermath of the cold war. The chapters in this volume try to assess Vranitzky's central role in recent Austrian and European history. Contributors include Richard Luther, Eva Novotny, Fritz Plasser, Irene Etzer-dorfer, Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann, Brigitte Unger, Peter Rosner, Alexander van der Bellen,and Georg Winkler.
Ferdinand Karlhofer, co-editor
This volume deals with the position of women in Austrian society, politics, and in the economy and shows that it follows the familiar trajectory of Western societies Women were expected to accept their“proper” place in a male patriarchal world. Achieving equality in all spheres of life was a long struggle that is still not complete in spite of many advances. The chapters in Women in Austria attest to the growing interest and vibrancy in the areas of women's studies in Austria and present a cross-section of new research in this field to an international audience.
Erika Thurner, co-editor
After World War II, Austrian elites constructed a new identity based on being a “victim” of Nazi Germany. Cold- war Austria, however, envisioned herself as a “neutral island of the blessed” between and separate from both super- power blocs. Now, with her membership in the European Union secured, Austria is reconstructing her painful historical memory and national identity.
Günter Bischof, Anton Pelinka, editors